Commercial Farmers' Union of Zimbabwe

Commercial Farmers' Union of Zimbabwe

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This concept paper has been compiIed by Dr. Zorodzai Maroveke. It seeks to unearth a value chain which can be beneficial to the Zimbabwean economy. This value chain has been researched from my exposure to an industry observed during my studies in the People’s Republic of China. I hold a Degree of Dental Surgery Bachelor of Stomatology and I have a strong proficiency in Mandarin language. During my study period I was fortunate to learn about Hemp and understand the Chinese manufacturing sector of Hemp trade. The production of Hemp is not a new idea globally however it may be new to Zimbabwe given that we do not have a Hemp history. Meanwhile, other nations are enjoying revenue from a global trillion dollar Hemporium industry. 

 This document therefore serves to inform, educate and provide a way forward towards the establishment of a fruitful Hemporium industry in Zimbabwe. My hope is to see Zimbabwe fit into this global industry for we are already blessed with an abundance of the primary resources that enable Hemp production and the conditions necessary towards the establishment of Southern Africa`s largest Hemp industry. The paper shall define the Hemporium industry, its history in world trade, its uses and benefits and shall identify the barriers restricting its development in Zimbabwe proposing in steps a setup blueprint to enable Zimbabwe`s participation in Hemp trade.










What is Hemp?

Hemp also known as Industrial hemp is a variety of a plant specie scientifically known as “Cannabis Sativa”. It is a cousin to the popular “Cannabis Indica” (mbanje,marijuana,indian hemp) and the least popular Cannabis Rudelis, however they are not the same. Sativa is the strongest fiber in the plant kingdom. It is harmless for it cannot be used as a recreational drug because it contains very little to none of the psychoactive compound THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol), therefore it is not useful to drug users.








Leaf shape

Narrow and Thin

Broad and Thick

Leaf colour

Light green

Dark green

THC  content

0.05 – 1%

3%-20%(stats by NIAHC)

CBD content




Very dense

Spaced out






Hemp has been used in ancient civilizations like Egypt, China, Greece and Europe. It was common for canvas paper and rope making. According to history it was until the last century of 8000 BC that it became associated with its narcotic cousin marijuana and therefore banned in many countries. It was once the world’s largest agricultural crop, however the introduction of cotton which was and still is more expensive and that of nylon led to the propaganda and politics of Hemp hence it was unjustly criminalized. Zimbabwe as a 3rd world country and former colony, falls victim to the historical prejudice of this plant as is Zimbabwe does not have a tangible Hemp history.

-The first constitution of America was written on canvas paper
-Hemp was grown for at least 12000 years for fiber but effectively prohibited in the USA  since the 1950’s
-George Washington and Thomas Jeffery both grew Hemp for paper
-Canada Licensed for production in 1998
-Great Britain lifted Hemp prohibition in 1993
-China was the earliest region to cultivate and use Hemp, from the earliest primitive           
societies Qin to Hah dynasties developing hemp sowing and processing techniques.




Uses of Hemp
Animal feed and bedding

Hemp seed is the only edible part of the plant. It can be consumed raw roasted or cooked. Hemp seed is 30% oil and it can be pressed for oil that is low in saturated fats and rich in protein and other nutrients. Seeds can also be processed to make snack bars,hemp milk,cookies,flour,porridge,brewed coffee or beer and condiments.

The press cake makes a very rich meal for animal feed, birds and other herbivorous livestock included. The bulky fiber makes100% natural, low dust super absorbent and bio-degradeable animal bedding for pets and livestock.

Hemp can provide two types of fuel, Hemp biodiesel (fuel that runs in any conventional unmodified diesel engine) it is made from the hemp seed. The other one being Hemp ethanol or methanol made from the bulky fermented stalk. The world still debates whether it is economically feasible or not due the energy output and other factors but it is undeniable that it is a sustainable alternative and probably most cost-efficient and valuable of all fuel crops if we could grow it on a large scale. Hemp wicks are also used for lighting

The basic building block of plastic is cellulose taken from Petroleum, but toxic petrochemical compositions are not the only way to derive plastics. Since Hemp is the greatest cellulose producer on Earth it only makes sense to make non-toxic biodegradable plastic from Hemp and other organics. Perhaps Zimbabwe can make its own organic diapers now!

Hemp paper is sustainable as it produces more in comparison to tree pulp. Hemp is used for printing, cigarette filters, newsprint, packaging, netting, canvas art and money printing.

The Long hemp fiber makes it ideal for textiles it is woven into durable, antibacterial airy and well insulated fabric. Hemp garments are suitable for both summer and winter. By contrast cotton fibers are shorter in length and prone to faster wear and tear. Fabrics provide UV protection. Hemp makes shoes, bags, socks, blankets and technical textiles like cordage, netting, ropes, canvas, twine, webbing and wicking

Hemp fiber can make building products such as Hempcrete, geopanels, lime mortars, Industrial hemp oil, mulch, insulation boards, roof tiles and fiber boards. Companies like BMW, AUDI and FORD have since experimented with Hemp fiber to make lighter, durable and recyclable automobile bodies and parts like fiber glass screens, upholstery and doors.

Most of the body care products of hemp such as soap,shampoo,hand cream and skin care products that have UV light protection effect are derived from the rich oil.

Hemp has a wide range of medicinal characteristics. Hemp seed oil contains beneficial components such as sterols, aliphatic alcohols and linoleic acids. Omega-3 fatty acid being one of linoleic acids has been recognized as preventing coronary heart disease. Sterols lower cholesterol levelshence lowering the risk of heart attack. The aliphatic alcohol like phytol is associated with antioxidant and anticancer benefits. Among other benefits hempseed oil is effective for dermatological conditions and lipid metabolism.

cannabis means the flowering or fruiting tops of the cannabis plant (excluding the seeds and leaves when not accompanied by the tops) from which the resin has not been extracted, by whatever name they may be designated;
cannabis plantmeans the whole or any portion, whether green or dry, of any plant of the genus cannabis also known as “Indian hemp”, bhang, camba, dagga, mbanje or intsangu, but excluding—
(a) any fiber extracted from the plant for use as or in the manufacture of cordage, canvas or similar products, or

(b) any seed which has been crushed, comminuted or otherwise processed in such a manner as to prevent germination, or
(c) the fixed oil obtained from the seed

[Definition substituted by section 31 of Act 9 of 2006.]
dangerous drug” means
(a) any coca bush, coca leaf, raw opium or cannabis plant;
(b) prepared opium, prepared cannabis or cannabis resin;
(c) a scheduled drug;

“prepared cannabis” means cannabis which has been prepared for smoking and any dross or other residue remaining after cannabis has been smoked;
scheduled drug” means a drug specified in Part I or Part II of the Schedule to the…..

Dangerous Drugs Act
[Chapter 15:02], and the term “Part I scheduled drug” shall be construed accordingly. 156 Unlawful dealing in dangerous drugs
(1) A person who unlawfully
(a) imports, exports, sells, offers or advertises for sale, distributes, delivers, transports or otherwise deals in a dangerous drug; or
(b) cultivates, produces or manufactures a dangerous drug for the purpose of dealing in it; or
(c) possesses a dangerous drug, or any article or substance used in connection with the production or manufacture of a dangerous drug, for the purpose of dealing in such drug; or
(d) incites another person to consume a dangerous drug; or………..

This is the current Law of our country. In my understanding it is clear that Industrial Hemp has not been differentiated from Mbanje (Cannabis Indica, Indian Hemp, Marijuana). The cannabis plant as a whole with its variations is illegal in Zimbabwe. As long as our legislation is not revised to reschedule Cannabis Sativa and leave Marijuana under the Dangerous drugs Act, the potential and dreams for a Hemporium Industry in Zimbabwe will remain dreams to those that abide by the law.

In my opinion I feel that as a former colony we subconsciously or ignorantly carried on with some laws that do not benefit an independent Zimbabwe. Prior to colonization the global history of hemp has also affected us as a third world country. Zimbabwe is not alone, across the African continent it is only South Africa, maybe Swaziland and of recent Malawi to my knowledge that have acknowledged Hemp and distinguished it from Mbanje in their Legislation for pilot projects. Time however is of essence as the nation is already ignorantly a market of finished Hemp products from South Africa, China and some Western countries.


4.0.       Zimbabwe Support Structure for the Hemp Industry

4.1.1.    Agricultural Policy and Land Reform issues of land hunger and colonial injustices became the centre of the armed struggle, the signing of the Lancaster House Agreement in 1980 officially commenced Independence and land reform in Zimbabwe, seeking a more equitable distribution of land between black subsistence farmers and white Zimbabweans of Rhodesian ancestry who had traditionally enjoyed a superior political and economic status in the country through unjust colonial policies. key issues of inequity in land ownership came to the surface yet again several years into Independence threatening the ability of the subsistence farming sector to feed its adherents in the form of pressures from poverty, a growing population with a shortage of land, decreasing yields from depletion of fertility of the land due to over-utilization and erosion, and a slow moving willing-buyer willing-seller land settlement arrangement in which the British government would finance half the cost. the late 1990s, Prime Minister Tony Blair terminated this settlement which had been setup during the Margaret Thatcher administration, repudiating all commitments to land reform in Zimbabwe. As a result Zimbabwe responded by embarking on a “Fast-Track Land Redistribution Program,” which saw by 2011, 237,858 Zimbabwean households provided with access to 10,816,886 hectares of land for agricultural resettlement. since then every effort by government has been consistent and genuine to help get the new farmer to be as productive as the former land owners, political issues such as international sanctions which bitterly contest the fast track land reform program, environmental issues such as droughts, and lack knowledge of international agricultural value chains have made the learning curve for the new Zimbabwean farmer longer. is a national development plan formulated by the Zimbabwean Government to create an enabling environment for all its economic sectors and as such under this plan, for Agriculture the Command Agriculture initiative has managed to avert the face of hunger for the nation. being the backbone of the Zimbabwean economy needs to get the industries up and running again in full capacity, and to achieve this requires a lot more innovation allowing for the country to adopt strategies to increase participation in new global value chains and economic trends such as those that can be afforded by Hemp. country’s infrastructure including land resources, industrial capacity and human capital is ready to prove its competency however opportunities in which to compete have had a tendency to evade the country simply because in many instances the country has had to rely on information provided by the ousted farming community which is well networked and not promoting agricultural efforts out of Zimbabwe or because the country is failing to attract markets due to lack of critical mass and high cost of production. response the country needs to adopt several cash crops other than tobacco and cotton to sustain its economic dreams as these two crops face unprecedented global competitive pressure and are diminishing in terms of viability. Similarly the objectives of the land reform program are yet to be fulfilled in terms of productivity and this requires the nation to embrace new value chains to support agriculture which in turn supports industry. short everything necessary for the introduction of an operational Hemp cultivation industry is available. However some investment into knowledge dissemination and some investment into the vertical integration process of all primary operations with processing and marketing functions is a pre-requisite for the industry to be installed and permanently established and most of this promotion required at policy level to unlock Hemp cultivation in Zimbabwe.

4.1.2.    National Industrial Development Policy of the objectives of the Ministry of Industry and Commerce in its Industrial Development Policy have been to restore the manufacturing sector’s contribution to GDP of Zimbabwe from 15% to 30% and its contribution to exports from 26% to 50% as well as to foster an average real GDP growth of 7%, creating additional employment in the manufacturing sector on an incremental basis. Ministry has set to increase capacity utilization from the current levels of around 57% to 80% by re-equipping and replacing obsolete machinery while introducing new technologies to promote local production hence ensuring import substitution and enhanced value addition to enable the utility of available local raw materials in the production of goods. are sound policy objectives towards promoting the introduction of new industrial innovations to achieve some of the underscored targets. Introduction of Hemp cultivation has the potential to increase the range of activities under these policy objectives given the vast industrial opportunities that emanate from Hemp cultivation have a multiplier effect and can be developed by the historic capacity generated from the textile and tobacco industry that have an uncertain future due to global trends. The Hemp industry can be a back up industry in case a collapse of both the tobacco and cotton industry becomes evident. the introduction of Statutory Instrument 64 of 2016 the development of the Hemp industry can experience much needed growth support as this instrument can be applied to protect the industry (which is experiencing in the absence of its formation) from the creeping in of finished Hemp goods from other countries. This if left unattended will surely lead to a flight of capital from the country, capital which may otherwise have been invested by the country to see the establishment of a strong Hemp Industry in Zimbabwe.

4.2.       Health Policy the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare government desires are to have the highest possible level of health and quality of life for all its citizens, which will allow them to participate fully in the socioeconomic development of the country. achieve this the mission of the Ministry of Health & Child Welfare is to provide, administer, coordinate, promote and advocate for the provision of equitable, appropriate, accessible, affordable and acceptable quality health services and care to Zimbabweans while maximizing the use of available resources, in line with the Primary Health Care Approach. part of its mandate to give strategic direction in health sector development, the Ministry is known to have developed various national health strategies and policies. The new frontier for the Medical field has often been the never ending scientific discoveries relevant to medical breakthroughs. research and development into pharmaceutical health solutions is of paramount importance if the country seeks to create home grown solutions relevant to its social economic problems. is important to recognize the numerous reports from international medical sources which recognize the effects of compounds such as Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-THC) and Cannibidols (CBD’s) the latter which is found in abundance in the Cannabis Sativa variety. is important for the country to conclusively study these compounds under a medical cover and research how our industries can make use of them to fit the Zimbabwean situation in the fight against certain ailments like cancer which have seen multinational pharmaceutical companies prosper from our ills by providing medication which keeps them in business. It is time we developed home grown solutions in the medical field. the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare the Minister has the power to prescribe Cannabis-based remedies to patients that are inundated by the need of such remedies. it would appear the Minister has the power to prescribe air for such patients when left without a legal source from which patients can procure the remedies given our laws on Hemp and Marijuana that do not allow for the development of a viable Cannabis-pharmaceutical industry. only solution in the short term and medium is to import such remedies and with shortages of foreign currency this solution too will come leave the Minister with no options at all. It is time we foster the development of home grown pharmaceutical and medical solutions. Hemp for its CBD compounds will be very useful in this regard.

Introducing Zimbabwe to the Hemp Industry

5.1.1.    Zimbabwe has the pre-requisite primary operating framework to introduce a Hemp industry i.e., a supporting policy framework from the industrial policy makers, land and farming resources to ensure optimal cultivation, human capital resources both in extension services and management and a traditional agricultural culture.

5.1.2.    However introduction of a Hemp industry at this point in time may be flawed by the absence of the most important ingredient in the structuring of an industry i.e., the lack of a clear market.

5.1.3.    The vast value chain opportunities offered by Industrial Hemp make it important for the development of Industrial Hemp Value Chain Strategy preferably under the Ministry of Industry and Commerce with the help of other development practitioners such as ZIHT, International Trade Organization, Zimtrade, CZI, etc together with other interested stakeholders in order to direct the industry on a global trajectory targeting export of finished goods and or satisfying local demands.

5.1.4.    The following steps are therefore recommended by ZIHT in the setup of a Hemp industry in Zimbabwe: Reforms          There is a need for the Government of Zimbabwe through Cabinet and Parliamentary structures to de-codify Industrial Hemp cultivation from the Criminal Law and Codification Act which criminalizes the development of a Hemp Industry. same legal framework must enable the creation of a secure Hemp industry which is governed by special licenses and permits authorizing the cultivation, movement and or processing of Hemp plant material. In this regard learning from other countries which have legalized Industrial Hemp production through our foreign offices and the use of special envoys will help the legislator learn from the past experiences of others and to draft comprehensive legal strategies. Analysis and Coordination An all inclusive special body of different sectors that can participate in the Hemp value chain should be setup without delay. This is important and necessary to organize the various stakeholders into appropriate categories of more organized representations and to avoid fragmentation of the industry while it in its infancy.          An input from all stakeholders will help to break down the challenges and barriers in setting up the industry in the long term unearthing opportunities, possible strategies, targets, innovations and solutions in implementation and further policy development.          This will go a long way to ensure a common global vision is established for the industry, and orderly success is achieved for the nation ultimately benefiting the ordinary Zimbabweans. Project Setup          It is essential for the industry to roll out multiple pilot projects under the organized interest groups in order for the industrial players to demonstrate concept viability and develop a database of essential information which will be used to structure the vast value chains.          With this information it becomes easier for the industry to orient with potential investment options and market destinations for the developed products and these pilot projects will be able to define the industrial capacity requirements and set production targets. Pilot projects in the view of the Trust must be purposeful either to study the growth of the crop, the development of cultivars, or to test the value chains. Research and Development          This is the most important stage of the industry development process. This is where effort to link Zimbabwean products with the global market occurs.          It is important to utilize tools such as Expo and investment conferences to generate interest from international market players for the products developed.          The major objectives would be to learn what the market wants in terms of quality and quantity, the most competitive pricing models, the most cost effective method of delivery of the products how to secure transactions.  

6.0.       Possible Challenges and Barriers to Introduction of Hemp in Zimbabwe

6.1.       If foreseen challenges and obstacles are not addressed before the take off of the effort to introduce a Hemp Industry in Zimbabwe the whole concept might face a lot of difficulties and even collapse despite conducive policies that support the introduction of hemp cultivation being drafted particularly emanating from the excitement the concept will generate defined by the Trust as the “Cannabis Chaos”. Such excitement usually leads to the fragmentation of the industry and in lost industrialization opportunities through criminal abuse and so there is need at some serious level to suppress the urges of Cannabis Chaos when observed.

6.2.       The following are some of the many barriers and challenges observed and experienced during the setup stages by other countries which led to the near collapse and slow down in momentum of their Hemp industry  

6.2.1.    Technical Barriers of knowledge in hemp growing          There is limited literature and reliable information available on hemp production particularly in seed development and post harvest strategies for the different industrial processes.          There is need to look into sources of information by the stakeholders with regards to this barrier which can limit the extent in which the industry performs and this should be done through pilot projects and much desk research by stakeholders.          An information centre may be necessary for the industry were the latest trends and any new knowledge is stored for use by the stakeholders of the industry. Hemp Quality and Yield          It is absolutely important to work with the correct varieties that are adapted to the growing conditions and that are suited to the ultimate end use required by the market. Poor yield and quality signify inability of the industry to be viable.          It is necessary for the industry to develop its own seed cultivars which can handle the different climatic condition available in the country and also suited to the market requirements. Normally it takes 4 years for seed breeding in this industry.          Post harvest care is also very important in ensuring that the products developed are acceptable to the market. It must be understood that a lot of trials to perfect quality are required. of expertise in Hemp manufacturing          There is an urgent need to collaborate with other hemp players in the global context to quickly understand the latest technologies available to the industry and potential markets. Information and expertise in the industry are few because of the background of the industry from a global context. of producers          The Lack of producers is terrible for the industry particularly when investments are made into new equipment. Normally this problem is often a result of poor pricing models or too stringent quality requirements in the industry and also lack of extension services and knowledge          This problem has affected the consistency of the Canadian Hemp industry as described in the case study below. This barrier can also be controlled through contract farming initiatives. of processing plants          To initiate a global industry or a supply chain much is required in the form of investment. As such the investment requirements in the Industrial Hemp industry are by no means small. The size of investment and type of machinery and technology required should be researched and procured before farmers are even allowed to cultivate.          In the case of some industries for instance the oil pressing industries and the textile manufacturing industry there is an advantage whereby the current available machinery can be converted to cover hemp processing from say cotton production with the need for little investment into new equipment and machinery. In any case a proper analysis into this barrier should be provided before the commencement of cultivation. of initial capital          There is a need to find adequate investment and in some cases for government to provide guarantee to unlock capital resources that can kick start the industry.          It is highly probable that capital investment through borrowing may be regarded as risky by lenders since this is a new industry to help mitigate this risk there is a need for subsidy support and to have an all it will take approach to see the industry develop. of Research and development and related industries          Hemp is a product with numerous uses and functions. Value chain analyses are important before commencement of introduction of the industry to ensure that in the beginning the limited resources available are channeled towards the most cost effective value chain. Research and development into markets should be constantly ongoing.          The most important sector which will bring to life the manufacturing potential of the industry is the engineering sector. This sector should be involved from the onset to develop appropriate solutions which make the industry efficient. A lot of the established players have designed and built their own machinery and that alone may determine the competitiveness of the industry particularly if the sharing of technology becomes an issue with respect to competition.

6.2.2.    Regulatory Barriers and Legal Allowance          The current Zimbabwean legislation is vague in its provisions of a legal framework concerning Cannabis cultivation for industrial development. Legislators should design a framework that supports the innovation in the industry, providing attractive investment opportunities and which promotes inclusion of multiple stakeholders.          The lack of a licensing and clearance system for Hemp cultivation requires law makers to take time to study the Hemp Industry licensing and policy models from other countries particularly countries like China we enjoy good relations with in order to come up with a blue print licensing system for Zimbabwe tax system          Perhaps to attract investment in the infancy of this industry it is recommended that tax holidays and subsidies be instituted which make sense to the collective benefit of the economy.

6.2.3.    Trade Barriers to source hemp seed and global controls because of patents          This is the most important barrier in the competitive space and a serious effort is needed to develop local cultivars in the short term to remove the industry from dependency on competing suppliers and ensure that the industry is not affected by third party risks by internalizing critical and strategic means of production.          Royalty fees paid to plant breeders can be an exorbitant source of suppression of the industry and careful consideration must be made to ensure that any similar rent overheads are limited to ensure the viability of the industry. requirements          In South Africa and Canada they found that the fencing requirements were not only unnecessary but very costly, discouraging and impractical. However adequate controls are required to protect the industry from the infiltration of drugs and as such heavy penalties for offenders should be instituted. profitability          Difficulty to start up the Hemp Industry        Hemp among other things is a crop that requires irrigation and or a good season of rain fall particularly during the first 4 weeks of growth many farmers may find the availability of irrigation equipment to be a barrier        To ensure that there is enough information about the profitability of Hemp it is important for collaborate with international players in order to study their business models.        The profitability issue may present itself in the form of lack of profitable economies of scale. This barrier discourages the interest of the producer in hemp production and or the opposite may be true that the market may require a critical mass supply and fail to turn over due to weak supplies which become barriers the growth of the industry. 

6.2.4.    Psychological Barriers association with Marijuana          There is a need to demystify the many years of bad press affecting Hemp production before the industry lifts off. One of the major purposes of ZIHT is to advocate for this knowledge and break the resistance. Investment in education and awareness is necessary to set apart Hemp from Mbanje and help the public to demystify the concept .

6.2.5.    Invisible Barriers fiber and products vested interests          Established industries such as the cotton and tobacco industries may struggle to embrace the Hemp industry if their vested interests are ignored during the process of Hemp industrialization.          These industries have invested a lot in infrastructure which must remain functional and profitable. The competition between cotton and hemp in the fiber textile industry must constantly be monitored


As a citizen and individual I am calling on responsible authorities to thoroughly assess and re-examine the Drug Act of Zimbabwe. Enjoying the numerous benefits of Hemp will only materialize when the Law decriminalizes Cannabis Sativa and clearly tells apart Hemp from Marijuana. Zimbabwe has a promising Hemp future.

Statutory Instrument of 2017 Dangerous Drugs (Production of Cannabis for Medicinal and Scientific Use) Regulations, 2017 Click in above





  “Industrial Hemp” Agriculture and Agrifood Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved 2013-02-28.

   “Erowid Cannabis Vault : Culture #2”. Retrieved 2008-06-20.

   “Michael Karus: European Hemp Industry 2002 Cultivation, Processing and Product Lines. Journal of Industrial Hemp Volume 9 Issue 2 2004, Taylor & Francis, London”. Retrieved 2011-04-20.

   “America’s First Hemp Drink – Chronic Ice – Making a Splash in the Natural Beverage Market”. San Francisco Chronicle (Los Angeles). Vocus. 8 June 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-12-27. Retrieved 19 June 2011. Chronic Ice, the nation’s first drink containing hemp, is making a splash in the healthy beverage market.

   “USDA ERS – Industrial Hemp in the United States: Status and Market Potential” (PDF). Retrieved 2013-11-09.

   “Farm bill promotes hemp as legal crop”. Retrieved 2014-02-05.

    “Nutrition Facts for Hemp Seeds (shelled) per 100 g serving”. Conde Nast, Custom Analysis. 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2015.

   Callaway, J. C. (2004-01-01). “Hempseed as a nutritional resource: An overview” (PDF). Euphytica (Kluwer Academic Publishers) 140 (1–2): 65–72. doi:10.1007/s10681-004-4811-6. Retrieved 2013-03-13.

   House JD, Neufeld J, Leson G; Neufeld; Leson (November 2010). “Evaluating the quality of protein from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

   “CRRH, Archaeologists agree that cannabis was among the first crops cultivated by human beings at least over 6,000 years ago, and perhaps more than 12,000 years ago”. Retrieved 2011-04-20.

    “Online Etymology Dictionary”. Retrieved 2011-04-20.

  “Green bedrooms and more: Healthy fabrics for the home”. The Ottawa Citizen. 2008-04-10.

  Cronin, Mary Elizabeth (1995-02-11). “Hemp fashions are clean, comfy, and legal”. The Free Lance-Star.



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